Let’s Know Jammu
CONSUME ANAAR & BER TO PREVENT CANCER
Cancer is a deadly disease, responsible for 2-3% deaths worldwide
annually. The mortality rate among men and women in India is almost
the same as 3.56 lakh men died of cancer in 2012, the corresponding
number for women was 3.26 lakh and against 4.77 lakh men, 5.37 lakh
women were diagnosed with cancer in India in 2012. The estimation of
1.1 million new cancer cases, indicates India as a single country
(of 184 total) contributing to 7.8% of the global cancer burden.
Mortality figures were 6,82,830 contributing to 8.33% of global
cancer deaths. As far as our state is concerned, cancer cases are on
the rise with lung cancer becoming most prominent due to smoking.
There is an increase in the number of cancer patients in the State
from last five years with Srinagar at top in year 2015. According to
official figures, 4556 cases of cancer were reported in 2011, 4848
in 2012, 5068 in 2013, 5568 in 2014 and 6358 in 2015. The summer
capital Srinagar tops the number with 898 cancer patients in 2015
while the number stands at 853 in Jammu. The lowest number of cases
has been recorded in Leh and Kargil districts of the Ladakh region
where it stands at 62. In year 2015, 265 cases of cancer were
reported from Kathua, 205 in Rajouri, 172 in Ramban, 169 in Samba,
139 in Doda, 126 in Poonch, 118 in Udhampur, 117 in Reasi, 113 in
Kishtwar. Further, 573 cases of cancer were reported from Baramulla,
489 in Anantanag, 452 in Budgam, 451 in Pulwama, 283 in Ganderbal,
273 in Kupwara, 263 in Kulgam, 169 in Shopian and 168 in Bandipora.
In males, the cancers which have been found to be predominant
include lung, throat, gastro-internal cancer and lymphoma while in
females cervical, breast, throat, gastro-internal and lung cancer
have been predominant. Billions of dollars have been spent on cancer
research and yet we do not understand exactly what cancer is? Cancer
has remained a major cause of death and the number of individuals
living with cancer is continuing to expand, but most of the drugs
used in cancer chemotherapy exhibit cell toxicity and can induce
genotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects in non tumor cells.
Despite the recent advances in surgery, endocrine therapy,
radiotherapy and chemotherapy, it is considered that the management
of cancer is still not up to the mark and we are in emergent need of
drugs for the treatment of cancer having no side effects.
There is strong, consistent evidence that high intake of fruits
protect against various cancers especially cancers of respiratory
and digestive tracts. These protective effects of high fruit
consumption are attributed to the active micronutrients (vitamins
and minerals) and non-nutritive components (phytochemicals) that
exhibit a potential for modulating human metabolism in a manner
favorable for the prevention of cancer. In other words, we can say
that fruits consumed in our daily diet could be a solution to this
deadly disease by providing chemoprotective and chemotherapeutic
remedy. Regular consumption of fruits is associated with reduced
risk of cancers and additive/ synergistic effects of phytochemicals
in fruits are responsible for their potent antioxidant / anticancer
activities. Natural products from some fruits offer new sources of
drugs, but there are still a number of fruits in which all the
active constituents have not yet been investigated. Therefore,
efforts are still being made for the search of effective naturally
occurring anticarcinogens that would prevent, slow or reverse cancer
development. The Jammu Division has great botanical diversity, but
minor fruits of kandi belt have not been subjected to accepted
scientific evaluation for their potential anticancer effects. The
research is going on in the Division of Biochemistry, SKUAST-Jammu
in collaboration with Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (IIIM-CSIR),
Jammu to find out the minor fruits of Jammu subtropics that possess
anticancer potential and can further be used for the management of
Punica granatum is a native of Iran and is considered as one of the
oldest known edible fruit that is mentioned in the Koran, the Bible,
the Jewish Torah and the Babylonian Talmud as 'Food of Gods' that is
symbolic of plentyness, fertility and prosperity. Anaar is featured
virtually in all major religions and has been used for centuries as
a folk medicine for the management and treatment of diverse
ailments. Pomegranate fruit is a rich source of two types of
polyphenolic compounds: anthocyanins and hydrolyzable tannins, which
account for 92% of the antioxidant activity of the whole fruit. In
the present investigation, the fruit of pomegranate was observed to
be most cytotoxic to four human cancer cells derived from four
different tissues and the growth inhibition range was between
72-93%. The most striking observation was that 93% growth inhibition
was observed against colon cancer cells and 84% against lung cancer
cells. Significant results were also produced in case of melanoma
and renal cancer cells as 80% and 72% growth inhibition was observed
respectively. Further, anaar exhibited 81% growth inhibition at
lower concentration against lung cancer cells.
Ziziphus mauritiana is a fruit tree which grows in tropical and
sub-tropical regions of the world. Different parts of this plant
have been used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of
different ailments such as asthma, allergies, depression and ulcers.
Studies have also investigated the phenolics composition of the
fruit and illustrated the scientific basis for the uses of different
parts of this plant for the treatment of diabetes, ulcer and
inflammation. The leaves of the plant possesses antioxidant,
antimicrobial, antitumor and anticancer potential. In the present
research work, ber fruit showed significant activity against four
human cancer cell lines from colon, lung, melanoma and renal origin
in the range of 75-81% as growth inhibition of 81% was produced by
against colon and lung cancer cells. The ber also showed growth
inhibition of 76% against melanoma and 75% against renal cancer
cells. Further, at lower concentrations, ber fruit showed 79% growth
inhibition of lung and 70% of melanoma cancer cells. The fruit
showed IC50 > 10 in case of lung cancer cells only.
Thus, these minor fruits possess strong antiproliferative potential
against human lung cancer cells. What is quite remarkable in these
observations is that the cytotoxic effect shown by the fruit extract
was much stronger than that shown by standard drugs for cancer
(serving as positive controls in present investigation).The results
obtained confirmed the therapeutic potency of ber and karonda
against lung cancer cells and showed that these fruit extracts
possess certain cytotoxic constituents that can be used for
developing anticancer agents for lung cancer therapy. This research
work has two fold importance: First, in Jammu subtropics, the in
vitro anticancer efficiency of these minor fruits with IC50 values
against the lung cancer cells used in the present investigation have
not been reported in the literature. Secondly, the results from the
investigation forms a good basis for the selection of these minor
fruits of Jammu for further phytochemical and pharmacological
analysis and offer us new drugs from natural sources which would be
less toxic and more potent for the efficient management of cancer.
Thus, on the basis of present analysis, it is suggested that we
should encourage the consumption of these minor fruits so as to
avoid the risk of lung cancer. Therefore, we can say that these two
fruits possess cytotoxic potential against lung cancer cells and
further the research is in progress for the isolation of active
ingredient(s) that will surely serve as lead molecule (s) in the
development of anticancer drugs to provide a great promise and
service to lung cancer patients. Regular consumption of fruits is
associated with reduced risk of cancers and additive/ synergistic
effects of phytochemicals in them are responsible for potent
Dr. Vikas Sharma, Ph.D, FSAB, FHAHS
(The author is Assistant Professor, Division of Biochemistry,
Faculty of Basic Sciences SKUAST-JAMMU, Main Campus Chatha
Origin of urdu... language
Urdu is a Turkish word which means 'foreign' or 'horde'. This just
shows that the language itself represents its origin being an
amalgamation of foreigners with the natives of South Asia. It was
formulated with the interaction of foreign army, merchant and
immigrants to india. The forte of the language is and has always
been its literature.
Urdu involves numerous elements of Arabic as well Persian with
traces of Sanskrit.
It is rightly agreed that this language adds charm and elegance to
prose and poetry.
It is a language with a number of aspects and facets and it's
beauty is divine….
ORIGIN OF URDU
There are different opinions about the origin and development of
Urdu. In the beginning, Sanskrit was a dominant language. But slowly
the language receded into the background….
Between 500 AD to 1000 AD, ' Prakrit' language was very popular,
which later got divided into five parts:-
Pashachi, Shorsini, Maharashthri, Magadhi and Ardhmagadhi.
Later on, in western India, ' Braj Bhasha' came into prominence,
which had Persian and Arabic words mixed into it.
In western India, ' Khadi Boli was also spoken . Amir Khusroo,
Sheikh Baba jaan and Abdul Fazl have also reffered to the effect of
Khadi Boli on urdu language.
It is said that origin of Urdu, was not in Punjab, but in Delhi.
ORIGIN OF URDU POETRY
When muslims came to Punjab, local as well as foreign languages like
Arabic, Persian and Sanskrit mixed up and formed a new language
Hence, real origin of Urdu came with muslims in AD 1000, when both
political and cultural scenario in the country got affected
There is no doubt that urdu language has developed and progressed in
Delhi and particularly, Urdu poetry flourished here. It would be
pertinent to mention here that Urdu poetry had its local centres of
progress not only in Delhi, but also in Lucknow, Azimabad and Rampur.
In the beginning the poets used Persian words in their couplets. But
once they reached Delhi, they realized that a simpler language will
have to be used. The reason was that some of the words had dual,
meaning which made it difficult to attract nobelity and common man.
In their pursuit to simplify the language, Mir Zaki Mir, Mirza,
Mazhar and Yakeen' have contributed a lot, initially , and it is
said that Urdu poetry's most prominent era, started with the advent
of Mir and Mirza.
Due to devastation of Delhi, all the poets got dispersed, which
resulted in the distribution of Urdu Poetry to different parts of
Delhi is considered to be the place of origin of urdu poetry. Early
poets of Delhi , faced two problems. One use of Persian words, and
secondly, their dual meaning. For example the word 'arzee' means '
unsustainable' as well as 'heek'. Hence ,
what the poet intended to convey, was difficult to understand. Due
to Delhi's devastation, when all poets got dispersed…' Mir', 'Dard',
'Sufi' remained there.
After a while, when Delhi got back its popularity, Urdu poetry
flourished once again. During this period, ' Shah Nazir', ' Zokh'
and ' Zafar' were the prominent court poets. 'Momin's' poetry on the
other hand , was full of romance, but away from the grandeaur of the
Royal Courts. 'Mirza Galib',one of the greatest urdu poets, followed
Lucknow had wealth and comfort in plenty. Due to the problem in
Delhi, most of the poets migrated to Lucknow, which was the centre
of cultural activity.
Lucknow being prosperous and peaceful , urdu poets flourished here.
They had a tendency to appreciate and there is a beauty and presence
which was very prominent in their poetry.
Hence, the poets stressed more on the niceties of the language,
which was made more floral and feminine in it's presentation…
Azimabad was a great centre of Urdu poetry, towards the east of
Lucknow, where we have Patna now. The quality & trends of Urdu
poetry in Azimabad were more akin to Delhi style, despite its
proximately to Lucknow.
This similarity was due to the same environment prevalent.
It has been a centre for a number of urdu Poets. Prominent one
amongst them, was ' Shad Azim Abadi'. The poets of Azimabad were
known for their simplicity, though, they did use Persian language.
Their romantic poetry, gave a new standing to Urdu poetry, thus,
making their contribution significant….
The downfall of the last mughal king 'Bhadur Shah Zafar', a great
poet himself, and the ruler of Awadh, ' Wajid Ali Shah' led to the
migration of poets, to smaller insignificant states like Rampur.
'Mirza Galib' a great poet also took, shelter in Rampur. The ruler
of Rampur, ' Nawab Yusuf Ali Khan Nazim' was himself a great poet,
and hence, was benevolent in embracing all these great poets.
Due to this migration, there was confluence of the two styles of
urdu poetry in Rampur. 'Daag' and ' Jaslum' represented Delhi, where
as, 'Amir', ' Jalal' and ' Behan' represented the Lucknow style of
Shayari'. 'Nawab Kalab Ali Khan', ascended the throne after his
father's death. He, again was a poet himself and urdu poetry further
There was no influence on Southern India of the North, before
British rule. ' Ala -ud-din khilji' was the first ruler to annex
south is the thirteen century.
"Muhammad- Bin- Tughluq' made Daulatabad (Devangiri) his capital and
even the common migrated there from Delhi. With the result , Urdu
became an impotant language.
In the fifteenth century, five smaller states came up. The Adil
Shahi rulers of Bijapur were great lovers of art and culture. During
their time, famous Urdu poets like' Khwaja Banda Narwaz Chaisoo Draz'
and ' Khwaja nasir-ud-din chirag-Delhi' gained fame.
It is important to mention Deccan's contribution to Urdu poetry. It
gave a great poet' Shah Miran jee Shamas Al Shah' (1497-1562) and
his son ' Brahan -ud-din Janam' (1544-1599). Their poetry contained
prose, ghazals and dohas, collectively… to be continued...
In this part of India, no doubt, Urdu poetry did progress, but it
was not taken seriously. Here , it was more of a pass-time , than a
serious literary work. . In this field, Persian remained dominant,
as it's use was considered royal.
The foundation of Urdu poetry in northern India, was laid by 'Amir
Khusroo', followed by 'Kabir' , 'Mirza' and ' Tulsidas'.
In 1700 AD the poets who migrated to 'Delhi', realized the
importance of day-to-day language and incorporated common in their
poetry, thus making it simpler.
The other poets of importance were ' Khan Arzoo', ' Abroo', 'Naji',
' Hatim' and 'Fiaz'….
' Amir Khusroo' happened to be the first poet of urdu language. He
had a different style of writing. In his poetry, there is a
significant use of 'Braj Bhasha' as well as ' Khadi Boli'.
"GORI SONDE SEEZ PAR
MUKH PAR DARE KEES
CHAL KHUSROO GHAR APNE
NEHAN BHAI CHO DESS"…
The above couplet signifies the use of 'Braj Bhasha' and ' Khadi
Boli' in Khusroo's urdu poetry…
Galib is a milestone in Urdu poetry. His name was ' Asad ul Khan'.
He was born in Agra. He had a very tough childhood. At the age of
nine, he was an advisor to 'Bahadur Shah Zafar' on literary
creation. During the revolt of 1857, the English stopped his pention,
which was revived later.
In the beginning Galib used to write very tough urdu, which he later
modified. Galib hated to venture into trodden path. Hence, he always
gave his own style of poetry, which is remembered till date. He used
Persian words very often, because his flight of imagination was very
high. Before Galib, urdu poetry was only confined to romance. But
Galib diversified topics of urdu poetry and enlarged its scopes. He
was jovial by nature, as it depicted in his couplets, so is pride
and thought fullness…
Iqbal was born on 9th of November, 1877. His Forefathers were "Sapru"
Brahmins from Kashmir. After conversion, they migrated to Sialkot
(now in Pakistan). Since, there was a religious, environment at
home, Iqbal loved to recite the "Quran". He was very well educated
and did his masters, in philosophy.
He was a great philosopher and poet of Urdu language. His fame came
from his Persian and urdu poetry which was written in classical
style for public recitation.
Through the medium of his poetry, he tried to pull muslims from
illiteracy and backwardness. He laid great stress on individuality
and till date is known as the "philosopher poet" ….. his poetry
blended well with music, as he choose his word very carefully,
people remember him as a "prophet"…
Present Day Scene
Urdu is a language full of charm & elegance. Even today, ones with a
slight poetic and aesthetic sense prefer to express in Urdu only.
However, the unfavorable fact is that today as the Pakistani society
is losing its cultural charm, it is also unmindful towards its
native language. It went into the background as Pakistan and India
moved towards development and adopted the English language.
However, over the years, the language has established itself, never
to be over-looked and is still read in the form of those novels that
make the exemplary literature in theatre, schools and aesthetic
Urdu poetry straddled and struggled through many phases. Initially,
it was a mixture of "Braj Bhasha" and "Khadiboli". But, later on, it
was over shadowed by Persian and Arabic. With the passage of time,
poets realized the importance of using a simple language to reach
It's scope was more centered on romance and beauty of a woman and
their coquettish nature which later got enlarged, and related itself
to the daily life of people. Poets brought more refinement to it
from time to time. "MIRZA GALIB" and "IQBAL" were the masters of
their art. But even now, more and more poets like "JIGAR MURADABADI",
"JOSH MILI", "ABADI", "FIRAQ GORAKHPURI" are few names amongst the
plethora of poets who continued the tradition of Urdu poetry and
inspired by them, more will follow… Because:-
"YEH ZINDAGI KE MELE HARGIZ KAM HA HONGE,
PAR AFSOS, HUM NA HONGE"…..