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Let’s Know Jammu




Cancer is a deadly disease, responsible for 2-3% deaths worldwide annually. The mortality rate among men and women in India is almost the same as 3.56 lakh men died of cancer in 2012, the corresponding number for women was 3.26 lakh and against 4.77 lakh men, 5.37 lakh women were diagnosed with cancer in India in 2012. The estimation of 1.1 million new cancer cases, indicates India as a single country (of 184 total) contributing to 7.8% of the global cancer burden. Mortality figures were 6,82,830 contributing to 8.33% of global cancer deaths. As far as our state is concerned, cancer cases are on the rise with lung cancer becoming most prominent due to smoking. There is an increase in the number of cancer patients in the State from last five years with Srinagar at top in year 2015. According to official figures, 4556 cases of cancer were reported in 2011, 4848 in 2012, 5068 in 2013, 5568 in 2014 and 6358 in 2015. The summer capital Srinagar tops the number with 898 cancer patients in 2015 while the number stands at 853 in Jammu. The lowest number of cases has been recorded in Leh and Kargil districts of the Ladakh region where it stands at 62. In year 2015, 265 cases of cancer were reported from Kathua, 205 in Rajouri, 172 in Ramban, 169 in Samba, 139 in Doda, 126 in Poonch, 118 in Udhampur, 117 in Reasi, 113 in Kishtwar. Further, 573 cases of cancer were reported from Baramulla, 489 in Anantanag, 452 in Budgam, 451 in Pulwama, 283 in Ganderbal, 273 in Kupwara, 263 in Kulgam, 169 in Shopian and 168 in Bandipora. In males, the cancers which have been found to be predominant include lung, throat, gastro-internal cancer and lymphoma while in females cervical, breast, throat, gastro-internal and lung cancer have been predominant. Billions of dollars have been spent on cancer research and yet we do not understand exactly what cancer is? Cancer has remained a major cause of death and the number of individuals living with cancer is continuing to expand, but most of the drugs used in cancer chemotherapy exhibit cell toxicity and can induce genotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects in non tumor cells. Despite the recent advances in surgery, endocrine therapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, it is considered that the management of cancer is still not up to the mark and we are in emergent need of drugs for the treatment of cancer having no side effects.
There is strong, consistent evidence that high intake of fruits protect against various cancers especially cancers of respiratory and digestive tracts. These protective effects of high fruit consumption are attributed to the active micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) and non-nutritive components (phytochemicals) that exhibit a potential for modulating human metabolism in a manner favorable for the prevention of cancer. In other words, we can say that fruits consumed in our daily diet could be a solution to this deadly disease by providing chemoprotective and chemotherapeutic remedy. Regular consumption of fruits is associated with reduced risk of cancers and additive/ synergistic effects of phytochemicals in fruits are responsible for their potent antioxidant / anticancer activities. Natural products from some fruits offer new sources of drugs, but there are still a number of fruits in which all the active constituents have not yet been investigated. Therefore, efforts are still being made for the search of effective naturally occurring anticarcinogens that would prevent, slow or reverse cancer development. The Jammu Division has great botanical diversity, but minor fruits of kandi belt have not been subjected to accepted scientific evaluation for their potential anticancer effects. The research is going on in the Division of Biochemistry, SKUAST-Jammu in collaboration with Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (IIIM-CSIR), Jammu to find out the minor fruits of Jammu subtropics that possess anticancer potential and can further be used for the management of cancer.
Punica granatum is a native of Iran and is considered as one of the oldest known edible fruit that is mentioned in the Koran, the Bible, the Jewish Torah and the Babylonian Talmud as 'Food of Gods' that is symbolic of plentyness, fertility and prosperity. Anaar is featured virtually in all major religions and has been used for centuries as a folk medicine for the management and treatment of diverse ailments. Pomegranate fruit is a rich source of two types of polyphenolic compounds: anthocyanins and hydrolyzable tannins, which account for 92% of the antioxidant activity of the whole fruit. In the present investigation, the fruit of pomegranate was observed to be most cytotoxic to four human cancer cells derived from four different tissues and the growth inhibition range was between 72-93%. The most striking observation was that 93% growth inhibition was observed against colon cancer cells and 84% against lung cancer cells. Significant results were also produced in case of melanoma and renal cancer cells as 80% and 72% growth inhibition was observed respectively. Further, anaar exhibited 81% growth inhibition at lower concentration against lung cancer cells.
Ziziphus mauritiana is a fruit tree which grows in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Different parts of this plant have been used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of different ailments such as asthma, allergies, depression and ulcers. Studies have also investigated the phenolics composition of the fruit and illustrated the scientific basis for the uses of different parts of this plant for the treatment of diabetes, ulcer and inflammation. The leaves of the plant possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor and anticancer potential. In the present research work, ber fruit showed significant activity against four human cancer cell lines from colon, lung, melanoma and renal origin in the range of 75-81% as growth inhibition of 81% was produced by against colon and lung cancer cells. The ber also showed growth inhibition of 76% against melanoma and 75% against renal cancer cells. Further, at lower concentrations, ber fruit showed 79% growth inhibition of lung and 70% of melanoma cancer cells. The fruit showed IC50 > 10 in case of lung cancer cells only.
Thus, these minor fruits possess strong antiproliferative potential against human lung cancer cells. What is quite remarkable in these observations is that the cytotoxic effect shown by the fruit extract was much stronger than that shown by standard drugs for cancer (serving as positive controls in present investigation).The results obtained confirmed the therapeutic potency of ber and karonda against lung cancer cells and showed that these fruit extracts possess certain cytotoxic constituents that can be used for developing anticancer agents for lung cancer therapy. This research work has two fold importance: First, in Jammu subtropics, the in vitro anticancer efficiency of these minor fruits with IC50 values against the lung cancer cells used in the present investigation have not been reported in the literature. Secondly, the results from the investigation forms a good basis for the selection of these minor fruits of Jammu for further phytochemical and pharmacological analysis and offer us new drugs from natural sources which would be less toxic and more potent for the efficient management of cancer. Thus, on the basis of present analysis, it is suggested that we should encourage the consumption of these minor fruits so as to avoid the risk of lung cancer. Therefore, we can say that these two fruits possess cytotoxic potential against lung cancer cells and further the research is in progress for the isolation of active ingredient(s) that will surely serve as lead molecule (s) in the development of anticancer drugs to provide a great promise and service to lung cancer patients. Regular consumption of fruits is associated with reduced risk of cancers and additive/ synergistic effects of phytochemicals in them are responsible for potent anticancer activities.
Dr. Vikas Sharma, Ph.D, FSAB, FHAHS
(The author is Assistant Professor, Division of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences SKUAST-JAMMU, Main Campus Chatha






Origin of urdu... language and poetry

Geetanjali Murti


Urdu is a Turkish word which means 'foreign' or 'horde'. This just shows that the language itself represents its origin being an amalgamation of foreigners with the natives of South Asia. It was formulated with the interaction of foreign army, merchant and immigrants to india. The forte of the language is and has always been its literature.
Urdu involves numerous elements of Arabic as well Persian with traces of Sanskrit.
It is rightly agreed that this language adds charm and elegance to prose and poetry.

It is a language with a number of aspects and facets and it's beauty is divine….

There are different opinions about the origin and development of Urdu. In the beginning, Sanskrit was a dominant language. But slowly the language receded into the background….
Between 500 AD to 1000 AD, ' Prakrit' language was very popular, which later got divided into five parts:-
Pashachi, Shorsini, Maharashthri, Magadhi and Ardhmagadhi.
Later on, in western India, ' Braj Bhasha' came into prominence, which had Persian and Arabic words mixed into it.
In western India, ' Khadi Boli was also spoken . Amir Khusroo, Sheikh Baba jaan and Abdul Fazl have also reffered to the effect of Khadi Boli on urdu language.
It is said that origin of Urdu, was not in Punjab, but in Delhi.

When muslims came to Punjab, local as well as foreign languages like Arabic, Persian and Sanskrit mixed up and formed a new language called URDU….
Hence, real origin of Urdu came with muslims in AD 1000, when both political and cultural scenario in the country got affected
There is no doubt that urdu language has developed and progressed in Delhi and particularly, Urdu poetry flourished here. It would be pertinent to mention here that Urdu poetry had its local centres of progress not only in Delhi, but also in Lucknow, Azimabad and Rampur.

In the beginning the poets used Persian words in their couplets. But once they reached Delhi, they realized that a simpler language will have to be used. The reason was that some of the words had dual, meaning which made it difficult to attract nobelity and common man.
In their pursuit to simplify the language, Mir Zaki Mir, Mirza, Mazhar and Yakeen' have contributed a lot, initially , and it is said that Urdu poetry's most prominent era, started with the advent of Mir and Mirza.
Due to devastation of Delhi, all the poets got dispersed, which resulted in the distribution of Urdu Poetry to different parts of the country……

Delhi is considered to be the place of origin of urdu poetry. Early poets of Delhi , faced two problems. One use of Persian words, and secondly, their dual meaning. For example the word 'arzee' means ' unsustainable' as well as 'heek'. Hence ,
what the poet intended to convey, was difficult to understand. Due to Delhi's devastation, when all poets got dispersed…' Mir', 'Dard', 'Sufi' remained there.
After a while, when Delhi got back its popularity, Urdu poetry flourished once again. During this period, ' Shah Nazir', ' Zokh' and ' Zafar' were the prominent court poets. 'Momin's' poetry on the other hand , was full of romance, but away from the grandeaur of the Royal Courts. 'Mirza Galib',one of the greatest urdu poets, followed them…..

Lucknow had wealth and comfort in plenty. Due to the problem in Delhi, most of the poets migrated to Lucknow, which was the centre of cultural activity.
Lucknow being prosperous and peaceful , urdu poets flourished here. They had a tendency to appreciate and there is a beauty and presence which was very prominent in their poetry.
Hence, the poets stressed more on the niceties of the language, which was made more floral and feminine in it's presentation…

Azimabad was a great centre of Urdu poetry, towards the east of Lucknow, where we have Patna now. The quality & trends of Urdu poetry in Azimabad were more akin to Delhi style, despite its proximately to Lucknow.
This similarity was due to the same environment prevalent.
It has been a centre for a number of urdu Poets. Prominent one amongst them, was ' Shad Azim Abadi'. The poets of Azimabad were known for their simplicity, though, they did use Persian language. Their romantic poetry, gave a new standing to Urdu poetry, thus, making their contribution significant….

The downfall of the last mughal king 'Bhadur Shah Zafar', a great poet himself, and the ruler of Awadh, ' Wajid Ali Shah' led to the migration of poets, to smaller insignificant states like Rampur.
'Mirza Galib' a great poet also took, shelter in Rampur. The ruler of Rampur, ' Nawab Yusuf Ali Khan Nazim' was himself a great poet, and hence, was benevolent in embracing all these great poets.
Due to this migration, there was confluence of the two styles of urdu poetry in Rampur. 'Daag' and ' Jaslum' represented Delhi, where as, 'Amir', ' Jalal' and ' Behan' represented the Lucknow style of Shayari'. 'Nawab Kalab Ali Khan', ascended the throne after his father's death. He, again was a poet himself and urdu poetry further flourished….

There was no influence on Southern India of the North, before British rule. ' Ala -ud-din khilji' was the first ruler to annex south is the thirteen century.
"Muhammad- Bin- Tughluq' made Daulatabad (Devangiri) his capital and even the common migrated there from Delhi. With the result , Urdu became an impotant language.
In the fifteenth century, five smaller states came up. The Adil Shahi rulers of Bijapur were great lovers of art and culture. During their time, famous Urdu poets like' Khwaja Banda Narwaz Chaisoo Draz' and ' Khwaja nasir-ud-din chirag-Delhi' gained fame.
It is important to mention Deccan's contribution to Urdu poetry. It gave a great poet' Shah Miran jee Shamas Al Shah' (1497-1562) and his son ' Brahan -ud-din Janam' (1544-1599). Their poetry contained prose, ghazals and dohas, collectively… to be continued...

In this part of India, no doubt, Urdu poetry did progress, but it was not taken seriously. Here , it was more of a pass-time , than a serious literary work. . In this field, Persian remained dominant, as it's use was considered royal.
The foundation of Urdu poetry in northern India, was laid by 'Amir Khusroo', followed by 'Kabir' , 'Mirza' and ' Tulsidas'.
In 1700 AD the poets who migrated to 'Delhi', realized the importance of day-to-day language and incorporated common in their poetry, thus making it simpler.
The other poets of importance were ' Khan Arzoo', ' Abroo', 'Naji', ' Hatim' and 'Fiaz'….
' Amir Khusroo' happened to be the first poet of urdu language. He had a different style of writing. In his poetry, there is a significant use of 'Braj Bhasha' as well as ' Khadi Boli'.
The above couplet signifies the use of 'Braj Bhasha' and ' Khadi Boli' in Khusroo's urdu poetry…


Galib is a milestone in Urdu poetry. His name was ' Asad ul Khan'. He was born in Agra. He had a very tough childhood. At the age of nine, he was an advisor to 'Bahadur Shah Zafar' on literary creation. During the revolt of 1857, the English stopped his pention, which was revived later.
In the beginning Galib used to write very tough urdu, which he later modified. Galib hated to venture into trodden path. Hence, he always gave his own style of poetry, which is remembered till date. He used Persian words very often, because his flight of imagination was very high. Before Galib, urdu poetry was only confined to romance. But Galib diversified topics of urdu poetry and enlarged its scopes. He was jovial by nature, as it depicted in his couplets, so is pride and thought fullness…
Iqbal was born on 9th of November, 1877. His Forefathers were "Sapru" Brahmins from Kashmir. After conversion, they migrated to Sialkot (now in Pakistan). Since, there was a religious, environment at home, Iqbal loved to recite the "Quran". He was very well educated and did his masters, in philosophy.
He was a great philosopher and poet of Urdu language. His fame came from his Persian and urdu poetry which was written in classical style for public recitation.
Through the medium of his poetry, he tried to pull muslims from illiteracy and backwardness. He laid great stress on individuality and till date is known as the "philosopher poet" ….. his poetry blended well with music, as he choose his word very carefully, people remember him as a "prophet"…
Present Day Scene
Urdu is a language full of charm & elegance. Even today, ones with a slight poetic and aesthetic sense prefer to express in Urdu only.
However, the unfavorable fact is that today as the Pakistani society is losing its cultural charm, it is also unmindful towards its native language. It went into the background as Pakistan and India moved towards development and adopted the English language.
However, over the years, the language has established itself, never to be over-looked and is still read in the form of those novels that make the exemplary literature in theatre, schools and aesthetic poetry……
Urdu poetry straddled and struggled through many phases. Initially, it was a mixture of "Braj Bhasha" and "Khadiboli". But, later on, it was over shadowed by Persian and Arabic. With the passage of time, poets realized the importance of using a simple language to reach the masses.
It's scope was more centered on romance and beauty of a woman and their coquettish nature which later got enlarged, and related itself to the daily life of people. Poets brought more refinement to it from time to time. "MIRZA GALIB" and "IQBAL" were the masters of their art. But even now, more and more poets like "JIGAR MURADABADI", "JOSH MILI", "ABADI", "FIRAQ GORAKHPURI" are few names amongst the plethora of poets who continued the tradition of Urdu poetry and inspired by them, more will follow… Because:-


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